Evening Meetings 2003

The BTS has a membership of almost 700 individual and over 60 corporate members. It is one of the most vibrant gatherings of professional tunnellers in the world.


Norwegian Subsea Tunnels

The presentation is on Norwegian road tunnels with special emphasis on sub-sea tunnels. In a short introduction the general procedure of field investigations and rock engineering will be shown and how these aspects are adapted to the special geological and ground conditions in Scandinavia. Subsea tunnels - which pass under rivers, lakes, fjords or straits - are a speciality in Norwegian underground rock construction. Today, more than 40 tunnels, totalling 125km have been constructed along the 2650km long Norwegian coast. The planning and construction of the Fröya sub-sea tunnel will also be presented. Some examples of some unexpected events in Norwegian tunnels will also be given.


Dr. Jan Bergh-Christensen & Morten Knudsmoen

King's Cross St Pancras Underground Station Redevelopment

King’s Cross St Pancras Underground station is one of the busiest and most complex stations on the London Underground system, serving the Metropolitan and Circle Lines at sub-surface level and the Northern, Victoria and Piccadilly Lines at deep level. The Underground station acts as an interchange hub for the St Pancras and King’s Cross mainline railway stations and has passenger links to Thameslink King’s Cross Station. The station currently serves 55,000 passengers during the daily morning peak. Passenger numbers at King’s Cross St Pancras Underground Station are projected to increase to about 82,000 during the daily morning peak by 2011.


Mike Crabtree, London Underground Ltd; Roger Cox, Infraco SSL; Chris Dulake, Ove Arup & Partners; Colin Eddie, Morgan Bemo Joint Venture

The Pipe Jacking Research Group - Soil Conditioning and Lubrication for Tunnelling and Pipejacking

Two of the United Kingdom’s premier universities, Oxford and Cambridge, are collaborating on a major tunnelling industry research programme into the effective use of soil conditioning and lubricating agents in association with tunnelling machines and pipejacking. Oxford University is focusing on soil conditioning (principally foams) in granular soils and Cambridge on soil conditioning and lubrication agents in clayey soils. Field work is being carried out on two CTRL sites and elsewhere. Primary objectives of the research are to investigate means of reducing the frictional forces between pipes and ground during pipe jacking and to investigate the use of soil conditioning agents within tunnelling machines and the interaction between the performance of tunnelling machines and the lining system, whether pipejacked or segmental. A range of additives are being investigated in the laboratory and their properties assessed using compression, swelling, permeability and shear strength tests and this is being followed by tests in model screw conveyors. It is anticipated that the research will enable tunnelling engineers to understand how various additives interact with different types of soil, improving the efficiency of tunnelling machine and pipe jacking operations and broadening the range of soils in which tunnelling machines can successfully operate.


Professor Robert Mair, Cambridge University & Professor Guy Houlsby, Oxford University

BGA & BTS Interchange Innovation - Tunnel Jacking on Boston's 'Big Dig'

The award winning tunnel jacking for Boston's Central Artery Project has brought savings of over US$300 million. Delivered by British engineers it is the largest and most complex project of its kind.


Alan Poderham, Mott MacDonald

The Harding Prize Competition

A shortlist of young engineers will present their papers in competition for the Harding Prize. The winner will be announced by the Chairman before the close of the meeting.


Second Avenue Subway, New York

The new, multi-billion dollar, 8½ mile subway line along 2nd Avenue will be the first major new subway development in New York City for over fifty years. The project has formed a key element of the system since the major developments of the early 1900s and was a part of the city's subway master plan of 1939. Ultimately, the subway line will run the entire length of Manhattan. It will connect with the Lexington Avenue Line and Metro-North at a new terminal station at 125th Street in Harlem and will run southwards, along the busy 2nd Avenue, to the southern tip of Manhattan. In total, the new, twin-track line will include sixteen new underground stations. The geology of Manhattan varies along its length. The subway will pass through both rock and soft ground and there will be multiple rock/soil interfaces along the alignment. It will comprise bored and cut-and-cover tunnels, and mined and cut-and-cover stations. The complex interaction between the existing infrastructure, buildings and the subway is a particularly challenging and crucial element of the project. The speakers will describe the project and in particular design and construction plans for the bored tunnels and mined station caverns.


Joseph Siano, New York City Transit; Drupad Desai and Don Phillips, DMJM Harris Arup

Jacked Box Tunnelling under the M1 Motorway at Junction 15A Northampton


Roy Brunsden, Highways Agency; Doug Allenby, Edmund Nuttall Ltd; John Ropkins, John Ropkins Ltd

BTS Discussion Evening - CTRL Project. The event will take place at Excel, Docklands

THE CTRL PROJECT TUNNELLING UPDATE The Thames Tunnel Project Team will present key aspects of THAMES TUNNEL C320, including Tunnel Construction, Spoil treatment and Cross Passage construction. The T2A Alliance will present key aspects of LONDON TUNNELS, including TBM performance and progress within the T2A Alliance contracts.


Capital Secret - The Story of the London Cable Tunnels

The presentation will centre on the last 13 years of planning and construction of cable tunnels in London. Since 1990, London Electricity and National Grid have been responsible for developing up to 70kms of cable tunnels for 132 kV and 400 kV high voltage distribution and transmission. Developed as an alternative to conventional trenching, the tunnel excavation and lining has involved the use of Shields, Pipejacking and EPBM Machines, and has passed through a variety of the typical geological formations underlying London. Currently, the longest tunnel being constructed is the 20km cable tunnel between Elstree and St John’s Wood, for National Grid. Also, London Electricity is in the process of awarding a contract for a tunnel under the River Thames between Farringdon and the Tate Modern. The presentation will discuss the planning and environmental factors, which influenced all the projects as well as the tunnelling and the cable installation.


Introduced by Martin Knights of KBR, with speakers from EDF; National Grid; Transco; KBR; J Murphy & Sons; and Morgan Est


The presentation will cover both technical and non-technical aspects of this scheme, which is so critical to London. Following analysis of a range of route options, CLRL have now proposed the adoption of what they have termed the benchmark scheme, involving a central East-West tunnel across London, with services extending to two branches to the East and two to the West.


Presented by Gordon Torp-Petersen, Crossrail Project Team, assisted by team members: Keith Berryman, Operations and Development Director; Simon Blanchflower, Systems and Rolling Stock; Mark Leggett, Tunnels, Stations and Construction Planning

Settlements and Sinkholes in Singapore

Just over 20km of running tunnel was driven for Singapore's North East Line using EPB shields. Of 485 monitored settlement points directly over the tunnels, 30 recorded settlements that exceeded the design estimates. There were 20 cases of local loss of ground, of which 16 came to surface, often as a localised sinkhole. The settlements that exceeded the estimates, and the local ground losses, were predominantly due to the use of an inadequate face pressure. The ground conditions varied from soft clay to tropically weathered rock. There was a particularly high risk of high settlements/ground loss at interfaces between different strata, or in mixed soil and rock grades of the weathered rocks. The experience of the North East line is compared with other documented experience of local, large, settlements and ground losses over EPB driven tunnels. Some of the measures being implemented to reduce the risk of such occurrences in the future will be discussed.


Nick Shirlaw, Civil Design/Land Transport Authority of Singapore