Timbering in Soft Ground

Traditional timbering in soft ground tunnelling - a historical review, published in September 2014.

The document may be downloaded free of charge here.


This document is a review of the use of timber as temporary ground support in tunnelling in London Clay as practiced in the second half of the twentieth century. Although the use of timber for underground roof support has its origins somewhere in distant history, the so-called Traditional Timbering measures described in this document were developed mainly in the construction of the London Underground railway network.

The BTS is greatly indebted to Colin MacKenzie for his considerable efforts in producing this historical review.