Evening Meetings 2001

The BTS has a membership of almost 700 individual and over 60 corporate members. It is one of the most vibrant gatherings of professional tunnellers in the world.


Hong Kong West Rail Tunnels

Construction of Hong Kong's modern commuter railways commenced in 1975 with the first section of the Mass Transit Railway which was opened in late 1979. The Government has continued to commit to the expansion of rail transport in the territory with construction phases currently planned to 2015. The West Rail, which is due to open in 2003, is a 30km commuter railway extending from the densely populated Kowloon peninsula to the Western New Territories where the population has expanded significantly in the past years. The design of the railway allows for future accommodation for freight traffic. The alignment includes 9.3km of bored tunnel; the 5.5km Tai Lam tunnel which will be the longest transportation tunnel in Hong Kong; and the 3.7km Kwai Tsing tunnel which sees the first use of a large diameter mixed-ground tunnel boring machine in Hong Kong. Construction of both tunnels is well advanced and this paper describes the design, procurement and construction process to date.


Jaya Jesudason, General Manager Construction West Rail; Howard McKay, Construction Manager, Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation & Charles Perrier, Project Director, Dragages-Zen Pacific Joint Venture

La Esperanza - Pozo Hondo Tunnelling Records in Ecuador

The 11.5 km long La Esperanza – Poza Honda tunnel is one of two tunnels in Oderecht’s US$140 million contract and one of three tunnels in the Trasvases Manabi inter-basin water supply and irrigation project. The project has been designed to develop agriculture on 13,250 hectares of land and to provide potable water to an urban population of more than 650,000 in Manabi Province, Ecuador. Odebrecht’s presentation will focus on the records achieved during the excavation of this tunnel, including 11.5 km in 10 months. It will highlight the geological conditions, the choice of the TBM and its features, the tunnel lining and the use of steel fibre in the concrete segments, and will describe the whole double shield TBM methodology. It will also outline the particular difficulties in setting up the project, access and logistic, campsite infrastructure and installation in such a remote area. A brief description of the project master plan, the client and the financing scheme is included, as well as an introduction of Odebrecht as a worldwide contractor.


Fernando Luiz Reis, Odebrecht

Are Tunnels Faster by TBM? The New 'Qtbm' Prognosis Model

TBM advance rates – the real progress, is linked to the optimal penetration rate by the utilisation i.e. AR=PR.U. An analysis of 145 projects, some 100Km of tunnels, allows U to be recast as a time dependent variable, i.e. U=T*M where the negative gradient M is the deceleration. This is quantified using the Q-value when conditions are very poor, and by using abrasion terms when the rock is massive. If we can then estimate PR by some means, the advance rate equation is ‘solved’. The speaker shows how this is achieved using Qtbm, which is an expanded and orientated version of the Q-value. Added terms are cutter force, rock mass strength estimation, cutter life index, quartz content etc. Using this new model it is possible to compare TBM and drill-and-blast progress rates for a given length of tunnel using core logging, mapping and seismic refraction results as an aid. TBM may not be the fastest solution for long tunnels, if adverse Q-statistics are the result of the long tunnel’s geology. Sometimes a hybrid solution is best.


Dr. Nick Barton, Nick Barton & Associates

Harding prize

Building on the review and recommendations put forward in the recent State of the Nation – ICE’s flagship transport policy report – the Institution is enabling a timely and much needed look at network integration, with a focus on the need for long term strategy development.


The ADECO approach to the design and construction of tunnels in Italy and France

There is a lot of extremely interesting and innovative work going on in Italy at the moment. Giovanna Cassani and Pietro Lunardi of Rocksoil Consultants come from Milan to speak about their recent experience of rock tunnelling in Italy and France. The principal speaker will be Giovanna Cassani. She will talk about the methods Rocksoil Consultants have evolved to solve problems in the design and construction of tunnels. This ‘philosophy’ has been termed the ADECO approach to tunnel design and construction. Whilst the ingredients of shotcrete, reinforcement, fibres and rock-bolting are familiar to all of us, the presentation will concentrate on Italian practice and will form a contrast to some of the ideas held in the UK. Dott. Cassani will be supported in her presentation by the founder of Rocksoil Consultants, Professore Pietro Lunardi. This paper will be of great interest to all those engaged in sprayed concrete work, whether as designers or contractors.


Dott. Ing. Giovanna Cassani and Prof. Ing. Pietro Lunardi, Rocksoil Consultants of Milan

The motion is: 'This house believes that the mandatory use of minimum disruption methods such as trenchless technology in urban areas, like London, will reduce congestion and be of benefit to all

The issue of traffic disruption in major conurbations such as London has in recent years become a major public and political issue. Who should pay for the disruption caused by trenching along streets? At present it is absorbed by the motorist or his/her company. Using trenchless technology will initially cost the utility provider more, which inevitably will result in increased cost in services and rates, but is this fairer than placing the burden directly on the motorist. Trenchless technology is widely available and improvements in techniques have made the application of these techniques more appropriate in urban areas. Should not local authorities grasp this opportunity to reduce congestion by using minimum disruption techniques such as trenchless technology? There are efforts being made to curb the amount of time, streets are opened-up by using ‘lane rental’ schemes with significant penalties for overrunning. Will this result in the greater emphasis being put on trenchless where no ‘lane rental’ is required. Trenching through the already congested streets of London is an ‘art’ practised by well know names in the industry and they make money at it. Also the providers of trenching equipment, who employ a significant workforce, have a vested interest in providing machines to keep people trenching at greater rates than ever before. This also reduces congestion but maintains the ‘status quo’. Who is right and do we need some form of regulation?


Speakers for the motion: James Thomson, Jason Consultants (UKSTT) & Richard Fraser, ARM Services Ltd (UKSTT). Speakers against the motion: Tony Smee, McNicholas Construction Ltd & Ken Bainbridge, JCB Sales

Antwerp Station Underground Works

Building on the review and recommendations put forward in the recent State of the Nation – ICE’s flagship transport policy report – the Institution is enabling a timely and much needed look at network integration, with a focus on the need for long term strategy development.


ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING & Hull Tunnels BTS Annual Report 2001 KINGSTON-UPON-HULL WASTEWATER TUNNELS - Construction, Problems, Solutions

The Kingston-upon-Hull wastewater scheme is the largest capital project ever carried out by Yorkshire Water. It includes a 60 million pound 10.6Km segmentally lined tunnel 3.6m in diameter, driven through water-bearing glacial and alluvial soils under the north bank of the River Humber. The presentation will cover the project management, technical details and contractual/partnering arrangements for the 2-TBM contract. Shortly before completion of the tunnels a collapse occurred near one of the shafts. This was recovered using ground freezing within which the tunnel was reconstructed using sprayed concrete. Both the investigation of the cause and the recovery operations will be described.


Steve Tindall, Yorkshire Water; Peter Chamley, Arup; Bill Grose, Arup; Colin Eddie, Morgan Est (Millers)